The History Of Divorce In The Us

The history of divorce is a long one. It has, as French philosopher Voltaire put it, likely been around since the advent of formalized marriage. While Voltaire may have referred to the susceptibility of marriage to collapse even in a loving union, divorce also applies to the legal dissolution that has resulted from disagreements amongst couples over the years in the Western world.

Legal divorce began as early as the sixteenth century in Europe as a firm rejection by Protestant leaders against Catholic institutions, such as marriage. And while the Protestants supported the legal proceedings of divorce and claimed that Catholic divorce-equivalents, such as annulments that were primarily used to break off bigamous relationships, were easy to obtain, very few married couple ever filed for divorce or annulments. Soon after, however, the granting of divorce began emerging from secular sources of power in Switzerland and later the U.K. The cases for divorce during this time were based on some fault of the defendant, though the guidelines were described in religious terms, such as from the Bible.

In America, the fault-based process of divorce remained mostly intact when the colonists arrived. A complete divorce-while necessary to prevent the moral complications of separated-but-married status-was possible, but very hard to get. As the 13 colonies became the 50 United States, the grounds for divorce had to be concrete, which enabled the ostensibly innocent or injured party to get relief in the form of the actual divorce. The reasons included desertion, adultery, regular inebriation and impotence, as well as the classic cruel and abusive treatment. While it was in the interest of the state to sustain marriages, the plaintiff had to come up with solid reasoning even when both parties wanted the divorce. It essentially had to be presented as a fight or fault-based case.

Around the mid-1950s in the U.S. several court rulings and state laws clearly recognized the many instances of no-fault reasons to end marriages. These included long-term separation, instances of incompatibility and loss of sanity. In practical terms, though, no-fault legislation was hard to use to actually provide a divorce for couples. It seemed that attorneys and judges were still driven by social mores that established the finality of marriage. Couples seeking divorce and their lawyers still had to fabricate their cases in a way that applied to established grounds most of the time. Ironically, as more people became married more than once in their lifetime and divorce was seen as less morally compromised, judges and attorneys had to sustain the fault-based divorce system to expedite the divorces easily.

Many states had many different reasons for divorce, from clear-cut adultery to major physical abuse. Some, however, were limited to just a few finite grounds, as in such East Coast states as Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland and others. For this reason, many couples seeking divorces would travel to other states, typically out West to a divorce refuge like Nevada or California, to gain their divorce. Many of these places, it must be added, made for easy and virtually instant marriages, too, like Las Vegas. When the divorce became legal, the couple would return to their original state to proceed with their now separate lives as usual. The trends were recognized by legislators, however, in states like New York, whereby a couple could travel to Mexico, live there just 24 hours and legally file for a divorce that would be recognized back in New York. They also recognized that those who had no means to leave the country for their divorces needed their rights protected, as well.

Yet it wasn’t until the 1970s that the U.S. instituted no-fault divorces that were easily obtainable. The U.S. took the cue from the U.K., which spearheaded divorce reform legislature. Judges in the U.K. could simply issue a divorce decree when a couple’s marriage was clearly irreparably damaged. California soon recognized the success of this approach and enacted its own law soon after. Laws like the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act soon spread across the country.

This method of divorce has been criticized by those who see that attorneys and judges may drag their feet because the grounds are so simple and open-ended, thus causing major family, employment and financial disruption amongst all of the parties involved. It has also been said that this kind of simple divorce has broken important bonds, and will continue to compromise the institution of the family.

In the contemporary U.S., the rate of divorce peaked in the 1980s almost one half of all marriages ending in dissolution. Many now say that it is not so much the laws granting easy divorce that have enabled so many to break apart their formal relationships, but several other reasons, such as increased women’s earning power, greater acceptance of divorce and-most prominently-the desire for “the pursuit of happiness,” in this case the ability to find a better spouse.

Typically, in the course of a divorce, an ex-husband will pay his ex-wife alimony for a discrete length of time. There are some states, however, that permit the reversal of that arrangement if the woman is the major breadwinner. If the couple has any children, custody can go to either or both parents, with visitation and custody settled between the parties as part of the divorce agreement.

Ultimately, divorce may be a necessary event for some to make the remainder of their lives reasonable and happy for all involved. When divorce becomes a possibility in your life, it is always best to enlist the aid of an attorney versed in comprehensive family and divorce law.

Weighted Average Cost Of Capital (wacc) A New Tool For Better Investment Decision Making

When making investment decisions, the risk level of the investment should always be compared against the expected return. The challenge in this process is evaluating the riskiness of the company being investigated. One tool often used by financial analysts is the Weighted Average Cost of Capital.

The WACC is defined as the expected rate of return from a company’s investments, weighted by the proportion of each to the overall capital structure. The capital, such as common and preferred stock, along with the expected return from the capital is considered, along with any debt, and the cost of that debt. The two figures are then weighted by their proportion to the overall capital, to come up with a single number.

A weighted average cost of capital (WACC) calculation is complex. Outsiders may need help calculating one on their own. To help, there are free WACC discount rate calculations available. Different calculations may come to different conclusions, but they should generally agree.

A WACC cost of capital calculation is best when used to make investment decisions. Low WACC calculations assume there are low debt and equity costs. Debt cost less for companies in good financial health and favorable credit markets. Equity cost more for volatile companies in volatile stock markets. Equity investors usually require higher returns than do debt holders. Low WACC estimates mean a company is generally less risky, but riskiness is related to expected return. The higher the risk-adjusted return, the better.

The weighted average cost of capital discount rate also helps determine if a company is producing additional value for investors. When a company produces returns greater than the weighted average cost of capital discount rate, the company is creating value at a higher level than the expected., and is more likely a good investment. Companies not producing a return of at least the weighted average cost of capital are usually in distress, and not suitable for investment.

Package Tourism

A popular form of travel package tours are fully organized tour where in the tour operators arrange for the whole trip in advance. This type of tourism is possible for large groups though some operators cater to small groups as well.

Tour packages usually offer pre arranged transportation and accommodation. But many packages offers extensive services like conducting sightseeing or wildlife watching in company of guides and manager. The services are determined by the costs and offerings.

The package tours may include to and fro air tickets as well. There is no harm in booking extensive package trips since the organizer benefits are passed of to the tourists. The packaged tours are safe and enjoyable hence the popularity. This kind of travel is most preferred by inbound tourists from foreign countries.

Top rated tour operators who conduct tours in large groups of fourteen to sixteen member are more in demand. They are usually landing agents for large tour companies based in the parent country. The tour is virtually conducted by the operator of the country to be visited.

The service providers and accommodation hotels get business in bulk in packaged tourism. They pass on the cost benefit is provided to the operator who in turn reduces the travel costs chargeable. Hence packaged tourism has made tour affordable.

Customized group travel packages are also feasible through established organizers. The tourists design their own itinerary, accommodation and transportation preference and forward it to the company. The company then conducts the travel so designed and gets a commission.

In all forms of packaged travel financial security and safety is there. Most of the trips are conducted by professional managers and guides hired by the company. This makes tour efficient, safe and interesting as many employees offer interactive interpretation of the offerings. Hence it is advisable to travel in groups tours for holidays.

The trend for holiday packages has witnessed a recent upsurge. Both predefined and customized packages are in demand. Most of the tourists are booking packages offered by popular organizers and companies all over the World.

Divorcing A Narcissist 4 Tips For Leaving Successfully

Going through the process of a divorce is not easy, and rarely pleasant. It is a huge loss to be dealt with emotionally, and there are many practical considerations to be managed as well. There are issues surrounding the loss of an ideal picture of marriage and family, the breaking of a commitment, the loss of the intimate relationship you once shared with your spouse, financial issues, living arrangements, the impact on mutual friends and family members, and of course the effects on your children. Unfortunately, if your spouse is a narcissist, these issues can become even more contentious and difficult to settle.

Chances are, you are getting a divorce because your partner continually commits bewildering, confusing, and destructive acts. When the divorce becomes a reality, it is likely that the gloves will come all the way off and you will experience even more hurtful behavior. Lacking in empathy, and not receiving the accustomed “narcissistic supply,” (admiration and attention) from you anymore, you might be discarded as worthless to the narcissist and any faade that your spouse put up to keep you in the relationship may drop. It is important to stay as collected as possible in this situation, and stay as focused and unengaged emotionally with your spouse as possible. He or she is not the person to go to for help or emotional support. Here are 4 practical tips for leaving the narcissist successfully:

1. Cover your legal bases and do it soon. Anytime there is property, significant assets, and/or children involved, an attorney is very important. Enlist the services of an attorney who you feel safe and secure with, and who understands the dynamics of a potentially “high conflict” situation, as well as a thorough understanding of more peaceful alternatives like mediation. If the attorney glazes over or dismisses you when you bring up narcissism, find another attorney to work with.

2.Make some immediate financial preparations. In the short term, make sure you have access to money. Get a credit card in your own name, while your credit is still combined with your spouse’s. Open a bank account in your name as well, and stash some emergency funds in it, just in case. Court orders are designed to protect you from having your access to funds blocked by a spouse, but it is always wise to expect that your partner may not “play by rules.” Make copies of all financial records and information tax returns, W-2’s, paystubs, loan information, insurance policies, employee reimbursement accounts, mileage plans, car titles, property appraisals, bank statements, credit card statements, 401K statements, investment statements, and the like. Your attorney can give you a complete list of all documents needed. See a financial planner for advice about settlements and future outcomes.

3.Log and document everything times, dates, and events. Record all the immoral, unethical, illegal, and destructive acts your spouse commits. This is particularly important if you live somewhere where there is fault assigned to divorce, or if you have child custody issues. If you have concerns for your children’s safety with your narcissistic spouse and he or she doesn’t agree to your custody terms, you might want to ask for a custody or parenting time evaluation. These can take many months so be sure to request it right away if it is necessary.

4.Avoid interacting with your narcissistic spouse, except as absolutely necessary. Avoid personal conversations, or assimilating his or her criticisms or manipulations of you. Remember, it is likely your spouse will try to belittle, dumbfound, or cause you to question your perception of reality. Be careful what information you share, keeping in mind it may all be used against you later.

Why Are Younger Men Older Women Relationships Too Popular Today

There has certainly been an increase in the occurrence of younger men older women relationships
over the last couple of years. Statistics show that these types of relationships are successful because they are based on true love connections. However, this has not stopped the worldwide, never ending debate on why such relationships are so prevalent. The very first answer that usually pops into anyone’s mind is that to do with the financial benefits that the younger men receive from these older women.

Younger men seeking older women are far from innocent or nave and clearly understand that such relationships can lead to their financial gain. This is due to the fact that older women are usually already financially stable and tend to ‘mother’ the younger men by taking care of most of their financial needs. In addition, it has been noted that younger men seek older women because they will escape most of the financial responsibilities that they will have to bear when dating a younger, less financially stable woman. For example, on older woman will settle the bill after a fancy dinner while the younger woman will expect the man, much as tradition and culture, to settle it.

Another reason that has been suggested is the fact that advancements in cosmetic technology has ensures that beauty and health facilities effectively help women keep in excellent physical condition. Older women keep fit by attending the gym regularly and usually use cosmetic surgery to ensure that their beauty does not fade away with age and effectively maintain their youthful appearance.

Thirdly, it has been suggested that biologically, a woman’s sexual peak is between the ages of 35-40 whereas that of their male counterparts is in their early 20’s. This clearly indicates that younger men older women relationships are purely as a result of the sexual needs of both parties.

In addition, it has been noted that younger men older women relationships thrive because young men look for women who want to be in serious relationships. In today’s society of decaying moral values, it not uncommon to find a young woman who has more than one boyfriend or who is involved in what is termed as ‘casual’ relationships. Younger women also tend to focus more on their career rather than their relationships. Here, older women offer younger men the possibility of getting a woman who already has a thriving career and can spare more time to work on their relationships.

Lastly, it has been suggested that younger men meet older women on online dating sites or through dating services. Here, the women may lie about their age and upload old pictures where they are full of youthful exuberance. The continuous communication creates a bond between the young man and the older woman even before they meet in person. In most cases, a woman will divulge her age much later but the connection that has already been made is often strong enough and ensures that the young man will not leave the older woman therefore leading to a lasting relationship.